Rays Arithmetic 8 Volume SetCategory: Arithmetic SetThis is the classic "Arithmetics" by Joseph Ray. First published in the 1800s, "Ray's Arithmetics" are organized in an orderly manner around the discipline of arithmetic itself. They present principles and follow up each one with examples which include difficult problems to challenge the best students. Students who do not master a concept the first time can return to it later, work the more difficult problems, and master the concepts. Thus in these compact volumes is a complete arithmetic course to study in school, to help in preparation for ACT and SAT tests, and to use for reference throughout a lifetime. In order to capture the spirit of the original Ray's, the publishers of this edition have refrained from revising the problems and prices. Only a few words have been changed. Thus students will have to rely on their arithmetic ability to solve the problems. Also the charm of a former era lives on in this reprinting. Flour and salt are sold by the barrel, kegs may contain tar, and postage stamps cost three cents each. Through this content, students learn social history of the 1800s in a unique, hands-on manner at the same time they are mastering arithmetic. Primary Arithmetic: Reading, writing and understanding numbers to 100; adding and subtracting with sums to 20; multiplication and division to 10s. Intellectual Arithmetic: Higher whole numbers, fractions, and mixed numbers; addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of higher numbers; computation of simple fractions; beginning ratio and percentage. Practical Arithmetic: Roman numerals; carrying in addition and borrowing in subtraction; measurement and compound numbers; factors; decimals and percentage; ratio and proportion; powers and roots; beginning geometry; advanced vocabulary. Higher Arithmetic: Philosophical understandings; principles and properties of numbers; advanced study of common and decimal fractions, measurements, ratio, proportion, percentage, powers, and roots; series; business math; geometry. Also included: Test Examples: A supply of problems for making tests to accompany study in Practical Arithmetic and Higher Arithmetic. Keys to Ray's Primary, Intellectual and Practical Arithmetics: Answers to problems in the three lower books. Key to Ray's Higher Arithmetic: Answers to problems in the higher book. Parent-Teacher Guide: This gives unit by unit helps for teaching; suggests grade levels for each book; provides progress chart samples for each grade and tests for each unit.